咖啡究竟是下一个超级食物还是下一个公众健康危害源取决于你询问的对象。看看最近的新闻或研究,你会发现咖啡“能对抗心脏病”、减少乳腺癌、结肠癌和多发性硬化的发病率并减轻老年痴呆症。最近美国国家健康研究生和耶鲁大学的研究人员们做的一项调查发现,比起那些不喝咖啡的人,那些每天至少喝4杯咖啡的人,黑色素瘤(一种皮肤癌)的发病率降低了百分之二十。

但只要再进行调查你会发现咖啡也会提升你感染各项疾病的风险。2010年一个综合了13个调查的整合分析发现,每天喝两杯咖啡罹患肺癌的概率就会增加百分之十四。再近一点,2014年的一个整合分析发现喝咖啡和罹患咽喉癌之间存在着联系。

为何结果相互矛盾呢?部分原因可能在于咖啡里的某些成分对人体有好处,而有些成分则有害。举例来说,咖啡中含有抗氧化物质,能帮助细胞抵抗不稳定分子(称作自由基,与癌症有关)带来的伤害。与此同时,有些研究人员推断喝热咖啡可能会增加人们罹患食道癌的风险,因为热咖啡能烫伤食道。

不过人们大部分困惑来自于所谓的混杂变量,即能影响研究结果的外来因素(比如饮食和基因)。变数越大,越难确切地推断出因果关系。

人们冲咖啡的方式多种多样,而你冲咖啡的方式可能会改变它在你体内的行为。拿滴虑咖啡法来说,这种方法会冲走咖啡豆中的某些脂类,其中包括咖啡醇和咖啡白脂。这些化合物能增加你体内的低密度脂蛋白含量,它也被称作“坏胆固醇”。出于这种原因,滴漏咖啡可能比法式滤压壶做出来的咖啡更有益心脏健康。

生活方式这种因素也能影响研究结果。西北大学预防医学的助教Marilyn Cornelis指出喝咖啡较多的人通常也抽烟喝酒,他们的压力通常很大,这些习惯都会影响喝咖啡习惯对人体积极影响的结果。就连一些表面上无害的习惯,比如在咖啡里加入牛奶或糖也会混淆结果。虽然大部分研究都使用了统计工具来控制这些变量,不过更老的研究并未控制它们。

也别漏掉了基因,它管理着人们体内咖啡因和一杯咖啡里其它分子的代谢。不幸的是,并没有多少研究调查了DNA在咖啡的健康影响中所扮演的角色,主要是因为科学家们在过去十年内才逐渐发现与咖啡因代谢相关的基因。将基因与环境因素结合起来可能可以调和实验结果之间的差异性。

与此同时,如果你不知道是不是应该继续喝咖啡,别担忧,大多数公共卫生专家认为咖啡利大于弊。最强有力的观点来自于2014年的一项整合分析,该分析整合了1996年至2013年期间长期喝咖啡与癌症、心脏病和死亡率之间关系的研究,总体来说,咖啡还是有利的。放心喝吧。

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  4. A History of the Future of News: What 1767 Tells Us About 2110Eric Newton – Senior adviser to the president of the John s. and James L. Knight Foundation I found tonight’s lecture to be both the most intriguing and the most enjoyable “ See Monday” by far. What really caught my attention were the strange coincidences Mr. Newton presented. In 1767 the new New York was predicted to contain many tall buildings made of stone (skyscrapers) and ships (steamboats). Ideas for modern technology like Skype, the IPad, and the cell phone were derived from movies, which in fact were not based on realistic events, like “The Jetsons”, “Space Odyssey”, and “Star Trek”, respectively. This indeed proves Newton’s closing statement, “if you think of the future and it makes sense, it’s not correct.” In a way, the more radical the idea, the more likely it is to actually occur. With technology seeming to advance every new generation, this leads to new ways of retrieving and reporting the news. By the year 2120, if this pattern persists, new media forms, awakenings, and crises will continue to accelerate beyond our current World War 3.0 to World War 4.0. In this period, Newton predicts that like the arguments and attacks going on in the cyber world today (World War 3.0) will be between humans and non-humans in World War 4.0; Machines will evolve beyond humans. Therefore, it is wise to take an interest in digital media, learn its history and its features, make friends with people who speak “tech.”

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