有人提了一个怪怪的问题:“日本人为什么不像中国人那样攻击中医?”

中医在中国确实有点不太待人见,有这么一个段子:“如果是一个中医让人去看西医,那就说明那人是真的有病了,但如果是一个西医让人去看中医,那就说明那人是真的没治了。”有人说得更干脆:去看中医的要么没病要么没治。

现在大家都在用微信,而且基本上都属于一个或几个群,有人说过这么一句话:“如果嫌哪个里不热闹,只要提一下中医就行了”,只要一提中医,一个群自然会分成“中医粉”和“中医黑”两拨,双方肯定会爆发一场热闹的争吵,弄得不好约上一架也完全可能。

笔者无意在这里讨论中医,就是试图来解答一下那个问题。

其实那句话里“攻击”这个字用的有点不太合适,主观感情因素过于激烈,在笔者看来改成“批判”可能更为合适一些。中医不是天条,批判批判也是可以的,当然随着地区的不同,批判的人也有多有少,比如日本人就真的不太批判中医。

因为日本根本就没有“中医”,总不会去批判一个闻所未闻见所未见的东西吧?

“日本没有中医?”恐怕不少人听到这句话会吃上一惊,因为经常有人在宣传中医伟大的时候总不会忘记告诉大家中医这门国之瑰宝虽然在中国国内不太待人见,但正在日本被发扬光大云云。

对不起,那么一个发扬光大了中医瑰宝的日本仅仅存在于一部分人的想象和意愿之中,是Made in China的,在实际上其实不存在,日本真的没有“中医”。

“中医”是中国人相对于西洋医术而对本国传统医术的称呼,也就是“中国的医术”,中国的医术发源于中国,传到了中国的邻国,比如朝鲜半岛、日本和越南,到后来凡学着中国人的样子用筷子吃饭的地方也就都学着中国人吃一样的药。

但那时候的称呼是“医”,没有前面的那个定语,不管是华佗还是孙思邈,都不会自称自己是“中医”,之所以要加一个“中”字,是相对于后来从西方来的医术而言,其实本来相对于西医的应该是东医,“东方医学”才对,但是西医来了之后,远东地方自己就打得热闹非凡,大家各弹各的调,所以在中国就叫“中医”,在朝鲜半岛就叫“高丽医”,再后来半岛南北分家,在韩国就叫“韩医”,在越南的叫“南医”。

照此类推,在日本的应该叫“和医”才对,大和民族嘛。日本人穿的是“和裁”缝制的“和服”,住的是“和室”,吃的是“和食”,里面还有很好吃的“和牛”,看病可不得找“和医”吗?

但是没有“和医”的说法,那是16世纪的时候,西洋医学从荷兰传入日本,被称为南蛮医学或者红毛医学,也称“兰方”或者“洋方”,原来从中国来的东方医学就被称为了皇汉医学或者和汉医学,也称“汉方”。所以日本不叫“和医”而叫“汉方医”。

再往后连“汉方医”都没有了。

日本明治维新全面西化,政府在1874年就规定了只有学西洋医学才能拿到医师执照,而且从1883年之后医师资格国家考试中就从来没有过东方医学的内容,日本的医学教育中起码有100年以上没有东方医学课程,直到2001年之后,医学部的教学大纲中才有了一条“能解说和汉药”,这样医学院才有了一点讲解汉方医学的课程。

什么叫做“医”?这是一个很认真的问题,一个人可以说自己是一个学者,是一个老师,是一个名人,是一个什么都行,但不能随便说自己是一个“医生”。基本上世界各国的法律都有一条“非法行医罪”,拿不出正式官方颁发的医生执照就自称自己是医生帮人看病是违法的,看死了人看活了人都一样。这也就是说在日本除西洋医学此之外的医学是不被承认的,无论是中医韩医藏医还是来自非洲的斯瓦西里医。

其实日本的“汉方医”虽然从总体来说属于东方医学,有点像中医,但是中医学传到日本之后日本自己发展出来的,和中医并不一样,最显著的特征是中医学里的阴阳五行那种似是而非的玄学巫术被全部剔除了,日本的汉方医学其实是一种对中医药典整理的学问,主要是从《伤寒论》和《金匮要略》这两本起起源于《伤寒杂病论》的著作里寻找认真的药方和验方治病,所以日本的汉方医学有不少有效的处方。

也正因为日本的汉方医学的主要成就在汉方药上,所以也就一直就流传了下来,即使在汉方医学不算医学的时代也一直有人记挂着。虽然从明治开始政府废除了汉方医学,但是民间企图复活汉方医学的努力也始终没有间断过。就在1895年,这边在打甲午战争,那边的国会还投了一次票来决定原来的汉方医师们能不能拿到医师执照,结果很可惜仅仅以28票的差给否掉了。

违法行医当然不行,但是偷偷卖药则没问题,只要不说那是药就不算违反《药事法》,而且有效的药是大家都需要的,有关衙门对汉方药也就一直睁一只眼闭一只眼。

日本从1961年开始就实现了全国民健康保险,但是一开始汉方药不能使用医疗保险,一直到1967年才有四种汉方药可以使用医疗保险,后来可以使用医疗保险的汉方药品种不断增加,到现在一共有148种成药200种药材可以使用医疗保险,就是说在日本的处方药中也有被称为“汉方药”的东方药。

但是在日本使用汉方药处方有特殊的限制。

首先是只能在这148种成药和200种药材中选取,不能自由配置,这一条好理解,另一条就严峻多了:必须是医疗行为。这个“医疗行为”的意思就是有行医执照的医生在确诊了病人的病名之后,才可以给病人开汉方药处方。

也就是说在日本不可以来一句“阴阳失调,气血两亏,肾虚精亏”这种十三不靠的理由来给病人开一大堆吃了无益也无害的东西,必须要有认真的病名。这点倒不是问题,在日本有行医执照的都接受了西医教育,知道如何进行诊断,诊断的手段当然只能是西医的,伸一下舌头搭一下喜脉可不行。确诊之后才可以给患者开处方,而那些处方汉方药都已经通过临床试验确认了药效,这就是日本的所谓“汉方治疗”,和中国的中医治疗完全两码事。

从以上治疗流程可以知道日本一般只存在汉方药,而没有汉方医的。日本本来就没有专门的汉方医师执照,医师接受的全是西医教育,但是开汉方药和汉方医学是完全两个概念,开汉方药只要知道药效和注意事项就行了。

但是日本还是有很少的中医师的,虽然只有学西医才能拿到行医执照,但是挡不住有拿到了行医执照的西医去学中医,而且还是去中国学中医,再回日本帮人看病,这种行医是合法的,而且这种中医师也能开出来正宗中医的处方,但是一般都会超出规定的保险用药,所以去看这种医生一般都不能用保险,像北里大学东洋医学综合研究所虽然有东洋医学治疗,其实就是中医,但是不能使用健康保险,这样也就限制了前往就诊的可能性。

日本为什么不太有人批判中医的原因其实就在这里:日本人就不知道中医,不知道的东西是无法批判的。

同样的道理,在埃塞俄比亚也不太有人批判中医

8条评论

  1. The weeks Must See Monday is quite special. It features the “History of the Future of News: What 1767 Tells us About 2110”. The intro was done by Dean Callahan. And then Senior Advisor to the Knight Foundation Eric Newton started going over how things from the past influence the future. For instance, the T.V. show “The Jetsens” came up with the idea of skype long before it was real. Newton then went to look at cycles throughout history such as World War 3.0 that is possibly soon to begin. “Cyber space is an arena for war”, Newton stated. If the cycles in history continue then we can expect technology to grow into something unimaginable. Our future could hold things such as having “newsbots” or having real conversations with your computer. With this new influx of technology old media will be sure to fall away into the past. “What’s next?”, Newton asked? The answer is bio media with augmented reality, media implants and nanotechnology. Newton continues to explain that 80 years from World War 3.0 there will be a World War 4.0 of humans v. a nonhuman entity. “Today we’re just scratching the surface of the digital age”. This quote is so true. Our future is rapidly approaching and it is up to us to shape it. Newton continued to explain what a journalist should do with this rapidly growing field. Journalists used to be able to just write on paper with ink and send it out to the world. Now we type up our information and send it out or broadcast our information to thousands over the television. So what is a journalist to do? Keep up with the times in this sea of technology. “Happy Sailing”.

  2. Eric Newton’s presentation on the history and future of journalism was surprisingly interesting. In it, he painted a stark picture of not only the future of journalism, but also the future of the world and how it relates to the journalistic profession.Newton listed the history of journalism, as well as the theory that a new brand of media evolves with every passing generation. From the pamphlet age to our current digital media juggernaut of an existence, one can definitely see the cyclical nature of journalistic evolution. But Newton didn’t simply stop at the current age. Instead, using predictions from “The Singularity is Near” and similar books, he applied the technological outlook to journalism. With the advent of new robotic organisms and faster, more instant global dissemination, the future speed and reach of news will only expand.However, I believe the human element will fall by the wayside in the relatively new future. While the ability to deliver the news will speed up, the same can be said of how humans wish to receive the news. Long drawn out explanations will no longer be desired. They barely are now. Journalists role will decrease. People will want the information, and at most they will look to experts for analysis.

  3. I thought it was interesting how this week’s Must See Monday was planned before the Tucson shooting occurred because the topic, “Communities in Crisis: Ethical Consideration for Journalists” is a fitting issue to discuss after such a tragedy. Nevertheless, the Must See Monday gave helpful insight on how to truthfully report and cover a crisis while remaining ethically sound that I think every journalist ought to know.Ina Jaffe from NPR West explained how she covered her first breaking news story, the Cleveland School shooting. One day, a man referred to as a loner showed up on the schoolyard and just started shooting around. Many children, mainly Southeast Asian refugees, were killed or wounded. Jaffe’s story was on how the school was patching up bullet holes, cleaning the schoolyard and planning to open the next day. Jaffe was horrified to have to stick a mic in the face of a child who just saw their classmates shot, but her editor said to not interview children. Instead, Jaffe reported on the scene and talked to people who were not children. Although children were the main ones who witnessed the event, interviewing them was crossing that ethical line that could have made the situation worse and more tragic. Children may have given insight into the horrific occurrence, but interviewing such young children would have brought more suffering.Based on his own experience covering tragedies and communities in crisis, Victor Merina from Reznet talked about the importance of observing your surroundings in addition to conducting interviews. When journalists are looking for that golden quote, they often fail at other things such as observing the location and people for the story. Observation can add much richness to stories and help the audience get a better picture of the scene. Merina also mentioned the importance of spending time with the people you interview to get a better understanding for the story. By taking that extra time to understand and make your sources feel comfortable, you build their trust and are more likely to gain helpful information for your article.I feel that this week’s Must See Monday gave valuable information and tips that many Cronkite students may need to use in their futures as journalists.

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  6. Last night’s movie “The Pelican Brief,” was both suspenseful and intriguing. It is an action thriller that keeps you on your toes the whole time. Two supreme court Justices are murdered and a brief is written by Darby Shaw, who is played by Julia Roberts. This Pelican Brief is passed along to first a college professor then an FBI agent. The Brief contains the names of people in the White House who may have had reason to want the Supreme Court Justices dead. Darby Shaw, along with help from Gray Grantham who is played by Denzel Washington go on am relentless dangerous search for truth. After many near fatal encounters with hit-men and attackers Darby and Gray uncover the true culprit behind the assassinations. I really enjoyed this movie from not only an entertainment approach but a journalistic one as well. Darby Shaw and Gray Grantham provide a great example of investigative journalism. They both hold ethics and truth over everything even given the life threatening circumstances. The movie also demonstrates a kind of inverted triangle approach given that the murders are committed at the beginning of the movie rather than the end. I thoroughly enjoyed last night’s movie choice.

  7. Tonight’s Must See Monday may have been one of my favorite lectures this year! Tonight, journalism students had the honor of welcoming to the First Amendment Forum of the Walter Cronkite School of Journalism and Mass Communications, Eric Newton. Mr. Newton senior adviser to the president of the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. According to the Knight Foundation’s website, “The Knight Foundation supports transformational ideas that promote quality journalism, advance media innovation, engage communities and foster the arts. We believe that democracy thrives when people and communities are informed and engaged.” Tonight, Eric discussed the future of news. Maybe the most intriguing quote, Newton stated, “The future of journalism is unknown.” Whether it is mass media, books, or newspapers, in today’s society, Newton mentioned how the news is always changing and evolving. As for the future of journalism, Newton continuously described the different possibilities of journalism, including the idea of Nano technology. Newton caught the attention of many, if not all of the students in attendance tonight and really gave the cliffhanger of the current would in saying that we are only scratching the surface of the digital age.

  8. It was with bated breath that half of the Cronkite School listened as Eric Newton outlined a future too fantastic to imagine. The senior advisor to the president of the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation and founding editor of the Newseum organization urged students to “Think crazy–not outside of the box crazy, but off the planet crazy,” citing science fiction as responsible for triggering technology we now find commonplace. The inventor of the cell phone, he told us, eyes twinkling, got his idea from Star Trek’s communicators, and don’t forget George Jetson Skyping Jane his wife every day from work.Things soon turned a bit more serious. Newton explored historical cycles in the development of communication technology, revealing the potential for as many as five different major technological revolutions in most Cronkite students’ lifetimes. These would range from the current mobile and social media era, to smart grids and artificial intelligence in 2027, biological media in 2048 (“an augmented reality for us all,” he said), finally ending with Matrix-esque cranial implants in 2069, and warfare between humans and robotic media tools as early as 2090. It was very sobering to realize what change lies ahead for us. Yet as Newton spoke, I realized that many of his suggestions for what to do to prepare were something I’d already done, while others were an ongoing process. I grew up watching Star Trek and The Jetsons, so “watching more science fiction” will not be an issue. “Learning truthful storytelling” is one of the main goals the Cronkite school has set for their students. And “make friends with people who code and learn their language”? Why, I’m doing that one too. But “learn a new digital tool every day” and “invent new story forums”? “To get to this future, someone’s got to shape it,” Newton said. “That gets to be you.”

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